Charles Stewart Parnell was an Irish nationalist politician known for his role in the Land War and as leader of the Irish Parliamentary Party (IPP). He was associated with the radical wing of the Home Rule League and in contact with the Fenians of his day. He was elected president of the Irish National Land League, toured America to raise funds for Famine relief, and was arrested for ‘sabotaging the Land Act’. After his release following the Kilmainham Treaty, he managed to lead the Home Rule movement through the Phoenix Park killings, and the decline of the IRB, which left him as the de facto leader of the Irish nationalist movement. He changed his party’s name from Home Rule League to the Irish Parliamentary Party. His downfall came as a result of his affair with Katharine O’Shea, who was separated but not divorced from her husband. This scandal fractured his support and as a result of his failing health he died shortly after.
The Manifesto of 1890 (1890)